Tina Jones Respiratory Shadow Health: Mastering the Essentials for Optimal Care

Tina jones respiratory shadow health focuses on the evaluation of the patient’s respiratory system through physical assessment and symptom analysis. In this simulation, the user will interact with a virtual patient and gather data about their respiratory health, including auscultation of lung sounds, assessment of respiratory rate, and identification of any abnormal findings.

Through this experience, users can develop their clinical skills and understanding of respiratory conditions, ultimately leading to improved patient care. Adding to the realism of the simulation, the virtual patient will provide feedback and responses to the user’s actions, allowing for a more interactive and engaging learning experience.

With its emphasis on data collection and interpretation, tina jones respiratory shadow health offers a valuable learning opportunity for healthcare professionals and students alike.

Tina Jones Respiratory Shadow Health: Mastering the Essentials for Optimal Care

Credit: issuu.com

Tina Jones Respiratory Shadow Health: Mastering The Essentials For Optimal Care

Tina jones respiratory shadow health: mastering the essentials for optimal care

Tina jones respiratory shadow health assessment is a comprehensive and essential tool for healthcare professionals to evaluate and manage respiratory health. Understanding the basics of this assessment is crucial for providing optimal care to patients. In this blog post, we will explore the key considerations and essential knowledge required to ace the tina jones respiratory shadow health assessment.

Understanding The Basics Of Tina Jones Respiratory Shadow Health Assessment

  • The tina jones respiratory shadow health assessment focuses on evaluating the respiratory system, including the lungs, chest, and breathing patterns.
  • It provides a simulated patient experience to practice and enhance assessment skills in a controlled environment.
  • The assessment includes various components, such as taking a detailed patient history, performing a physical examination, and documenting findings accurately.
  • Through this assessment, healthcare professionals can identify and document abnormalities, potential risk factors, and formulate appropriate care plans.
  • Understanding the correct techniques and methods for conducting a respiratory examination is vital to obtain accurate results.

Key Considerations For Optimal Care In Respiratory Assessment

  • Patient history: Gathering a comprehensive patient history is essential in understanding the patient’s respiratory health. This includes inquiring about any previous respiratory conditions, symptoms, smoking history, exposure to environmental factors, and family history of respiratory diseases.
  • Physical examination: Performing a thorough physical examination is crucial to assess the patient’s respiratory system. This involves inspecting the chest, listening to lung sounds, palpating for tenderness or masses, and observing the patient’s breathing patterns.
  • Documentation: Accurate and detailed documentation of findings is essential for effective communication among healthcare professionals and continuity of care. This includes noting any abnormal lung sounds, presence of cyanosis or clubbing, and any other relevant observations.
  • Differential diagnosis: Evaluating the patient’s symptoms, physical findings, and medical history helps in formulating a differential diagnosis. This allows healthcare professionals to identify potential respiratory conditions that require further investigation or intervention.
  • Education and support: Providing patient education and support is key to promoting optimal respiratory health. This includes teaching the patient about proper breathing techniques, smoking cessation, environmental triggers to avoid, and any prescribed medications or treatments.

By mastering the essentials of tina jones respiratory shadow health assessment and considering these key points, healthcare professionals can provide optimal care to patients with respiratory conditions. This assessment tool not only enhances assessment skills but also aids in formulating accurate diagnoses and implementing appropriate care plans.

As healthcare providers, it is crucial to stay knowledgeable and proficient in this assessment technique to offer the highest standard of care to patients.

Role-Play Scenario: Tina Jones Respiratory Assessment

Setting The Stage For The Role-Play Scenario

In this blog post, we will dive into the role-play scenario of a respiratory assessment for tina jones on the shadow health platform. This immersive digital simulation allows students and healthcare professionals to practice their assessment skills in a virtual environment.

By following along with the essential steps of this respiratory assessment, you can gain valuable insights into tina’s condition and enhance your understanding of respiratory health. Let’s take a closer look at the key points of this role-play scenario:

Demonstrating The Essential Steps In Tina Jones Respiratory Shadow Health Assessment

  • Introduction to tina jones: Before diving into the assessment, it’s important to familiarize ourselves with tina jones, a 28-year-old african american woman who presents with complaints of shortness of breath and cough. Understanding her background and medical history will provide valuable context as we proceed.
  • Obtaining a comprehensive health history: The first step in any assessment is to gather a thorough health history from the patient. This includes asking about symptoms, previous medical conditions, lifestyle factors, and any relevant family history. By asking targeted questions and actively listening to tina’s responses, we can gather crucial information to guide our assessment.
  • Physical examination: Once we have obtained the health history, it’s time to move on to the physical examination. This involves assessing tina’s vital signs, inspecting her respiratory system, palpating for any abnormalities, percussing to assess lung sounds, and finally auscultating for breath sounds using a stethoscope. By performing these steps meticulously, we can identify any potential respiratory issues.
  • Interpreting findings and formulating a diagnosis: After completing the physical examination, it’s time to analyze the collected data and interpret the findings. By considering the patient’s symptoms, health history, and the results of the examination, we can begin to formulate a diagnosis or differential diagnoses. This critical thinking process is essential for delivering optimal patient care.
  • Implementing a care plan: With a diagnosis in hand, we can now develop a targeted care plan for tina. This may involve prescribing medications, recommending lifestyle modifications, or referring her to a specialist. By tailoring the care plan to tina’s specific needs and circumstances, we can optimize her respiratory health outcomes.

By following along with tina jones’ respiratory assessment in shadow health, you’ll learn the essential steps and gain valuable insights into the assessment process. Ready to dive in? Let’s get started on this virtual journey to enhance our clinical skills and understand the complexities of respiratory health.

The Importance Of Comprehensive Patient History

Tina Jones Respiratory Shadow Health

When it comes to healthcare assessment, gathering relevant patient history plays a crucial role in providing accurate and effective care. By delving into a patient’s medical background, healthcare professionals can gain valuable insights into their respiratory health and identify any possible risk factors.

Let’s explore the significance of comprehensive patient history in assessing and managing respiratory conditions.

Gathering Relevant Patient History For Accurate Assessment

  • Asking open-ended questions about the patient’s medical history, including respiratory conditions, allergies, and previous treatments.
  • Inquiring about family history, as certain respiratory conditions and allergies may have a genetic component.
  • Discussing the patient’s lifestyle factors such as smoking, exposure to environmental pollutants, and occupation, which can impact respiratory health.
  • Considering any medications the patient is taking, as some medications can affect the respiratory system.
  • Conducting a thorough physical examination to assess lung sounds, breathing patterns, and any signs of respiratory distress.

Identifying Key Respiratory Health Risk Factors

  • Assessing the patient’s exposure to environmental factors such as air pollution, allergens, and occupational hazards.
  • Evaluating the patient’s smoking history and current tobacco use, as it is a significant risk factor for respiratory conditions.
  • Exploring any history of respiratory infections or diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd), or lung cancer.
  • Examining the patient’s lifestyle choices, such as a sedentary lifestyle or poor nutrition, which can contribute to respiratory health issues.
  • Understanding the impact of socioeconomic factors on respiratory health, such as access to healthcare and living conditions.

Role Of Patient History In Developing An Effective Care Plan

  • Using the patient’s history as a foundation for diagnosing and managing respiratory conditions.
  • Tailoring treatments and interventions based on the patient’s individual needs and risk factors.
  • Helping healthcare professionals to anticipate potential complications and guide preventive measures.
  • Gauging the effectiveness of current treatments by comparing symptoms to previous history.
  • Empowering patients to take an active role in their healthcare by understanding their own medical history and its implications.

By considering a comprehensive patient history, healthcare professionals can ensure accurate assessment, early detection, and effective management of respiratory conditions. Gathering relevant information and identifying risk factors enable healthcare providers to develop individualized care plans that support patient well-being. So, next time you engage with a healthcare professional, be prepared to provide a thorough patient history to facilitate the best possible respiratory care.

Analyzing Tina Jones’ Respiratory History

Tina jones’ respiratory history is a crucial aspect that needs to be thoroughly analyzed in order to understand her present condition. This examination includes reviewing her relevant medical and personal history, noting potential risk factors and symptoms, and determining the impact of her respiratory history on her current state.

By delving into these details, we can gain insights into the factors that may have contributed to tina’s respiratory issues.

Reviewing Tina Jones’ Relevant Medical And Personal History:

  • Tina’s medical history should be carefully evaluated, including any previous episodes or diagnoses related to respiratory conditions.
  • It is important to examine her personal history, such as any known allergies, exposure to environmental irritants, or smoking habits.

Noting Potential Risk Factors And Symptoms:

  • Identifying potential risk factors can assist in determining the underlying cause of tina’s respiratory problems. This may include factors such as occupational hazards, family history of respiratory conditions, or other comorbidities.
  • Listing the specific symptoms tina is experiencing will help in identifying any patterns or correlations that might aid in diagnosis. These symptoms may range from persistent coughing and wheezing to shortness of breath or chest pain.

Analyzing The Impact Of Respiratory History On Her Present Condition:

  • By analyzing tina’s respiratory history, healthcare professionals can gain insights into the potential causes or triggers of her current respiratory symptoms.
  • Understanding the impact of her respiratory history can aid in formulating an accurate diagnosis and developing an effective treatment plan tailored to her specific needs.

A comprehensive evaluation of tina jones’ respiratory history is crucial for determining the underlying factors contributing to her present condition. By reviewing her medical and personal history, noting potential risk factors and symptoms, and analyzing the impact of her respiratory history, healthcare professionals can provide the most appropriate care for tina.

Physical Examination In Respiratory Assessment

Conducting A Thorough Physical Examination For Optimal Care

When it comes to a respiratory assessment, a comprehensive physical examination is essential for gathering information and providing the best possible care for the patient. The physical examination consists of four important components: systematic inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation. Each step plays a crucial role in assessing the respiratory system and identifying any abnormalities or potential concerns.

Let’s explore the importance of each of these components in a respiratory assessment.

Systematic Inspection:

  • Systematic inspection involves carefully observing the overall appearance and respiratory effort of the patient.
  • It includes assessing the patient’s posture, skin color, and breathing patterns.
  • The examiner looks for any signs of distress, such as the use of accessory muscles or abnormal chest movements.
  • This step allows for initial observations and helps in forming a baseline for further assessment.


  • During palpation, the examiner uses their hands to feel and assess different areas of the chest and surrounding structures.
  • It helps in identifying tenderness, swelling, or abnormal masses that could indicate underlying respiratory conditions.
  • The examiner checks for the expansion and symmetry of the chest wall, which can provide valuable information about the functioning of the respiratory system.


  • Percussion involves tapping on the chest wall to assess the underlying organs and structures.
  • By listening to the resulting sound, the examiner can determine the density and presence of air or fluid in the lungs.
  • It helps in identifying underlying conditions like pneumonia, pleural effusion, or pneumothorax.


  • Auscultation is the process of listening to the sounds produced by the respiratory system using a stethoscope.
  • The examiner listens to the breath sounds in different lung fields, including anterior, posterior, and lateral regions.
  • It allows for the detection of abnormal breath sounds, such as crackles, wheezes, or decreased air entry, which may indicate respiratory conditions like asthma or pneumonia.

By following a systematic approach that includes inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation, healthcare providers can gather vital information about a patient’s respiratory health. This comprehensive physical examination forms the foundation for accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. So, whether you are a healthcare professional or a nursing student, mastering these skills is crucial for providing optimal care to patients with respiratory issues.

Assessing Tina Jones’ Respiratory System

Step-By-Step Examination Of Tina Jones’ Respiratory System

During the assessment of tina jones’ respiratory system, several key steps should be followed to ensure a comprehensive examination. These steps include:

  • Begin by inspecting the patient’s general appearance, looking for any signs of respiratory distress or abnormalities in breathing patterns.
  • Auscultate the lungs using a stethoscope, starting from the upper lobes and progressing to the lower lobes. Pay attention to the quality of breath sounds, noting any abnormalities such as wheezing or crackles.
  • Palpate the chest wall, feeling for any areas of tenderness or abnormal tactile fremitus.
  • Perform percussion on the lungs, listening for dull or hyper-resonant sounds that may indicate underlying pathology.
  • Assess the patient’s respiratory rate, taking note of any deviations from the normal range.
  • Evaluate the patient’s oxygen saturation levels using a pulse oximeter, ensuring they fall within a healthy range.
  • Lastly, encourage the patient to take a deep breath and cough, observing for any productive or non-productive coughing.

Interpreting Findings And Identifying Abnormalities

After completing the assessment, it is crucial to interpret the findings accurately and identify any abnormalities that may be present. This includes:

  • Analyze the breath sounds heard during auscultation, noting if they are diminished, bronchial, or abnormal in any way.
  • Evaluate the patient’s respiratory rate in comparison to the normal range for their age and condition.
  • Consider the patient’s overall appearance and any signs of respiratory distress.
  • Compare the oxygen saturation levels to the normal range and take note of any deviations.
  • Assess the presence or absence of any cough, and if present, evaluate its characteristics and productivity.

Utilizing Appropriate Techniques And Instruments

To ensure an accurate assessment of tina jones’ respiratory system, it is essential to utilize appropriate techniques and instruments. These include:

  • Using a stethoscope to auscultate the lungs and listen for breath sounds.
  • Employing palpation techniques to assess the chest wall for any abnormalities or tenderness.
  • Conducting percussion to elicit resonant or dull sounds that may indicate underlying pathology.
  • Utilizing a pulse oximeter to measure the patient’s oxygen saturation levels.
  • Encouraging the patient to take deep breaths and cough to evaluate their respiratory function.

By following these steps and utilizing the appropriate techniques and instruments, healthcare professionals can assess tina jones’ respiratory system thoroughly. Interpreting the findings and identifying any abnormalities can aid in the formulation of an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan.

Interpreting Diagnostic Test Results

Tina Jones Respiratory Shadow Health: Interpreting Diagnostic Test Results

Understanding the role of diagnostic tests in respiratory assessment:

  • Diagnostic tests play a crucial role in evaluating the respiratory system and determining the presence and severity of any underlying conditions or diseases. These tests help healthcare providers develop an accurate diagnosis and create an effective treatment plan tailored to the individual patient’s needs.
  • By analyzing the results of diagnostic tests, healthcare professionals can gain valuable insights into how the respiratory system is functioning and identify any abnormalities or areas of concern. This enables them to make informed decisions about the most appropriate course of action to optimize patient care.

Analyzing key results and their implications for optimal care:

  • Pulmonary function tests (pfts): These tests measure lung capacity and strength, providing information on how well the lungs are functioning. Key results such as forced vital capacity (fvc), forced expiratory volume in one second (fev1), and peak expiratory flow rate (pefr) are analyzed to assess lung function, diagnose respiratory conditions, and monitor disease progression.
  • Arterial blood gas (abg) analysis: Abg tests measure the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood, as well as ph and bicarbonate levels. These results help assess how well the lungs are oxygenating the blood and removing carbon dioxide, providing valuable information about respiratory acid-base balance and the severity of respiratory distress.
  • Chest x-ray: X-rays of the chest can reveal abnormalities in lung structure and help diagnose conditions such as pneumonia, lung cancer, and pulmonary edema. Analyzing the x-ray images helps healthcare providers identify any potential lung damage or disease progression.
  • Sputum culture: Sputum culture tests analyze samples of mucus coughed up from the respiratory tract to identify the presence of bacteria, viruses, or fungi. These results are vital in determining the most appropriate treatment for respiratory infections and guiding the selection of antibiotics or antifungal medications.

Understanding the significance of these diagnostic test results empowers healthcare professionals to deliver optimal care. By identifying respiratory issues, determining the severity of the condition, and monitoring disease progression, informed treatment decisions can be made to improve patient outcomes. Remember, accurate interpretation of these results is vital to provide the best care possible.

Analyzing Tina Jones’ Diagnostic Test Results

Tina Jones Respiratory Shadow Health

Tina jones recently underwent a series of diagnostic tests to evaluate her respiratory health. These test results provide vital information in understanding her condition and forming a comprehensive treatment plan. In this section, we will review the results of tina’s diagnostic tests, interpret the findings, and discuss potential treatment options based on those results.

Reviewing The Results Of Tina Jones’ Diagnostic Tests

  • Tina’s chest x-ray revealed slight opacities in the lower lobe of her right lung, indicating possible pneumonia or fluid accumulation.
  • The sputum culture test identified the presence of streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria, a common cause of respiratory infections.
  • Pulmonary function tests indicated decreased lung volumes and impaired airflow, indicating a restrictive lung disease.
  • Arterial blood gas (abg) test results showed hypoxemia, indicating low oxygen levels in tina’s blood.

Interpreting Findings And Their Significance In Her Respiratory Assessment

  • The opacities seen on tina’s chest x-ray suggest a potential lung infection, confirming the suspicion of pneumonia or fluid accumulation.
  • The presence of streptococcus pneumoniae in the sputum culture confirms the bacterial nature of her respiratory infection.
  • The findings from the pulmonary function tests suggest that tina may be experiencing a restrictive lung disease, which affects her lung capacity and airflow.
  • Hypoxemia observed from the abg test demonstrates inadequate oxygenation in her blood, potentially leading to symptoms of shortness of breath and fatigue.

Discussing Potential Treatment Options Based On Test Results

  • Antibiotics targeting streptococcus pneumoniae will be prescribed to address tina’s bacterial infection.
  • To manage her pneumonia or fluid accumulation, tina may require further medical intervention, such as drainage or respiratory therapy.
  • Depending on the severity of her restrictive lung disease, tina may benefit from pulmonary rehabilitation, including breathing exercises and chest physiotherapy.
  • Measures to improve oxygenation, such as supplemental oxygen therapy, may be necessary to alleviate tina’s hypoxemia.

By carefully analyzing tina jones’ diagnostic test results, healthcare professionals can gain valuable insights into her respiratory health and tailor a targeted treatment plan. The findings help identify the specific causes of her symptoms and guide interventions to alleviate her respiratory distress effectively.

Developing An Effective Care Plan

Tina Jones Respiratory Shadow Health

As a healthcare professional, developing an effective care plan for patients is crucial in providing the best possible care. In the case of tina jones and her respiratory assessment, utilizing the knowledge gathered from the assessment is the key to creating an appropriate care plan.

By collaborating with the healthcare team, comprehensive and holistic care can be achieved to address tina’s specific respiratory needs.

Utilizing The Knowledge Gathered From Assessment For Appropriate Care Planning

  • Evaluate the data collected during the respiratory assessment to identify any abnormalities or concerns related to tina’s respiratory system.
  • Take into account tina’s medical history, current symptoms, and any risk factors that may impact her respiratory health.
  • Assess tina’s breathing patterns, lung sounds, and overall respiratory function to gain a comprehensive understanding of her respiratory status.
  • Consider the results of diagnostic tests, such as chest x-rays or spirometry, to further evaluate tina’s respiratory condition.
  • Analyze tina’s lifestyle factors, including smoking habits, exposure to environmental pollutants, and occupational hazards that may influence her respiratory health.
  • Identify any potential respiratory complications or comorbidities that may require additional attention and intervention.

Collaborating With The Healthcare Team For Comprehensive And Holistic Care

  • Foster open communication and exchange of information with other healthcare professionals involved in tina’s care, such as physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, and pharmacists.
  • Share relevant assessment findings, observations, and concerns with the team to ensure a comprehensive understanding of tina’s respiratory needs.
  • Collaborate with the healthcare team to develop a personalized care plan that addresses tina’s individual goals, preferences, and challenges.
  • Consider interdisciplinary approaches that involve different specialties and perspectives to optimize tina’s respiratory care.
  • Coordinate with other healthcare providers to ensure continuity of care and timely interventions for any potential respiratory emergencies.

By utilizing the knowledge gathered from the assessment and collaborating with the healthcare team, an effective care plan can be developed to address tina’s respiratory needs. This comprehensive and holistic approach ensures that tina receives the best possible care and support for her respiratory health.

Creating Tina Jones’ Respiratory Care Plan

Tina jones is a virtual patient in the respiratory shadow health simulation, and in order to provide her with the best care possible, it is important to create a personalized respiratory care plan for her. This care plan will outline the goals and interventions to address tina’s respiratory condition.

By considering various factors and incorporating tina’s preferences and needs, we can ensure that the care plan is tailored specifically to her. Let’s delve into the key points under each subheading to create an effective and comprehensive care plan for tina.

Identifying Goals And Interventions For Tina Jones’ Respiratory Condition:

  • Assess tina’s respiratory condition thoroughly to identify specific goals and interventions.
  • Establish measurable goals that can be tracked throughout the care plan.
  • Develop interventions that target tina’s respiratory condition and address any underlying issues.
  • Collaborate with healthcare professionals to ensure a multidisciplinary approach to tina’s care.
  • Educate tina about her respiratory condition and the importance of adhering to the care plan.
  • Monitor and evaluate tina’s progress regularly to make necessary adjustments to the care plan.

Factors To Consider In Developing A Personalized Care Plan:

  • Take into account tina’s medical history and any pertinent information related to her respiratory condition.
  • Consider tina’s lifestyle and daily activities to create a care plan that is feasible and realistic.
  • Assess any environmental factors that may impact tina’s respiratory health, such as allergens or pollutants.
  • Evaluate tina’s support system and involve her family or caregivers in the care plan if necessary.
  • Consider any social or emotional factors that may influence tina’s ability to adhere to the care plan.

Incorporating Patient Preferences And Needs Into The Care Plan:

  • Engage in open communication with tina to understand her preferences and goals for her respiratory care.
  • Discuss treatment options with tina and involve her in the decision-making process.
  • Tailor the care plan to accommodate tina’s preferences, such as medication administration methods or alternative therapies.
  • Take into consideration any specific cultural or religious beliefs that may affect tina’s care preferences.
  • Regularly assess tina’s satisfaction with the care plan and make adjustments as needed to ensure her needs are being met.

By following these key points and considering tina’s unique circumstances, we can create an effective respiratory care plan that addresses her individual needs and enhances her overall well-being. Remember, the primary objective is to work collaboratively with tina to achieve the best possible outcomes for her respiratory condition.

Frequently Asked Questions On Tina Jones Respiratory Shadow Health

What Is The Purpose Of The Tina Jones Respiratory Shadow Health Assessment?

The purpose of the tina jones respiratory shadow health assessment is to evaluate the respiratory system and identify any potential issues or abnormalities.

How Does The Tina Jones Respiratory Shadow Health Assessment Work?

The tina jones respiratory shadow health assessment is a virtual simulation that allows students to practice their respiratory assessment skills on a lifelike patient. It provides a realistic environment to assess the patient’s respiratory system and make informed clinical decisions.

What Are The Key Components Of The Tina Jones Respiratory Shadow Health Assessment?

The key components of the tina jones respiratory shadow health assessment include gathering the patient’s medical history, conducting a physical examination of the respiratory system, assessing breath sounds, analyzing vital signs, and formulating a diagnostic reasoning based on the findings.

How Does The Tina Jones Respiratory Shadow Health Assessment Benefit Healthcare Students?

The tina jones respiratory shadow health assessment benefits healthcare students by providing them with a virtual learning experience that enhances their clinical skills and critical thinking abilities. It allows students to practice and improve their respiratory assessment techniques in a safe and controlled environment.

Can The Tina Jones Respiratory Shadow Health Assessment Be Used For Self-Study?

Yes, the tina jones respiratory shadow health assessment can be used for self-study. It offers interactive modules and activities that enable students to explore and learn at their own pace. It also provides immediate feedback and remediation to enhance the learning experience.

How Does The Tina Jones Respiratory Shadow Health Assessment Simulate Real-Life Patient Encounters?

The tina jones respiratory shadow health assessment simulates real-life patient encounters by presenting realistic scenarios, allowing students to interact with the patient virtually, and providing comprehensive patient data. It aims to mimic the challenges and complexities of real clinical practice for a more immersive learning experience.


Tina jones respiratory shadow health assignment introduces you to the intricacies of assessing and managing patients with respiratory illnesses. Through this case study, you have gained valuable knowledge about conducting a comprehensive respiratory assessment, identifying abnormalities, and formulating appropriate nursing interventions.

Understanding the importance of monitoring vital signs, assessing lung sounds, and documenting patient responses is crucial for delivering optimal patient care. By learning to administer appropriate medications, educating patients about lifestyle modifications, and implementing respiratory therapies, you can enhance patient outcomes and promote the overall well-being of individuals with respiratory conditions.

The respiratory system is vital for sustaining life, and as future healthcare professionals, your proficiency in assessing and managing respiratory health is invaluable. By integrating theoretical knowledge with practical skills, you will be ready to provide competent and compassionate care to patients with respiratory illnesses.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *